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A vector is a quantity described by both magnitude and direction. Velocity (for example 2.5 m/s west) is a vector, whereas mass (3 kg) is a scalar quantity.
A resultant is a vector formed by combining two or more vectors.
Components are vectors which, when combined, form a resultant. Orthogonal components are components that are at 90 degrees to each other. They are normally parallel to the axes of a reference system.
Taking apart a vector into components is called "vector resolution" or "resolving the vector."